Universal Counter Current Chromatography modelling based on Counter Current Distribution

There is clearly a need for a model which is versatile enough to take into account the numerous operating modes and pump out procedures that can be used with counter-current chromatography (CCC). This paper will describe a universal model for counter-current chromatography based on counter-current distribution. The model is validated with real separations from the literature and against established CCC partition theory. This universal model is proven to give good results for isocratic flow modes, as well as for cocurrent CCC and dual flow CCC, and will likely also give good results for other modes such as intermittent CCC.